The Birth of Our 2DNation


A researcher in Germany has identified one of the first works of animation shown in Japan, possibly offering clues to Japan’s first steps toward becoming a world-renowned producer of animation.

Frederick S. Litten, a Japanese animation history specialist at the Bavarian State Library in Munich, discovered a film under the English title “The Nipper’s Transformations” in a British film journal from 1912. Heretofore was known only that the film had been screened at a Tokyo theater in April 1912 under the title “Nipparu no henkei” (ニッパールの変形). Litten subsequently found that the contents completely matched that of a work created by cartoonist and animator Emile Cohl (1857-1938).

Litten’s paper on his research is available at :

Researcher identifies one of first animation films screened in Japan, Mainichi, January 05, 2013

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